Small city night lighting

Due to the low level of material living of the people in the past and the lack of development of public welfare undertakings, China's landscape lighting has not been popularized and developed for a long time. With the in-depth development of reform and opening up and the improvement of the quality of life of the masses and the continuous improvement of the cultural and material environment of urban and rural areas across the country, landscape lighting has made considerable progress nationwide. Especially in some open cities, landscaping and lighting projects have been launched, which has aroused widespread concern and attention.

As an important aspect of urban lighting, urban street lighting systems face many challenges in ecological design and lighting energy saving, lighting quantity and lighting quality, environmental atmosphere rendering and visual comfort in terms of technology and art. Compared with foreign countries, we started late, and the design on the big and fast is often lacking in systemicity, the illumination distribution is not reasonable or there is no rule, and even the urban light pollution and other drawbacks.

At present, the lighting design system has not yet included the contents of urban planning and urban design. The planning of urban landscape lighting system is still in the process of exploration, which is a relatively long-term experience. This article is derived from practice, some thoughts and discussions on this issue.

The meaning and function of urban street lighting The urban street lighting has a wide range, usually including street lighting, square lighting, park lighting, lawn lighting, building facade lighting, commercial lighting and small items (such as sculpture, water jet, telephone booth, etc.) illumination. The types and types of lighting are diverse and often cross each other. Such as street lighting, combined with street lights and garden lights, illuminating the road and road greening, sometimes combined with advertising light boxes. Another example is commercial lighting, which is divided into two types of billboard lighting and window lighting. Building facade lighting and urban sculpture lighting and billboard lighting often use floodlighting to obtain large illumination areas, contrast and reduce the number of lamp posts. Now there are new types of lamps such as contour lights and laser beams.

Night lighting elements such as buildings, bridges, towers, plazas, blocks, parks, attractions, environmental essays, trees, functional signs, commercial signs (advertising) and public welfare signs. Therefore, the lighting means has also evolved from the original single incandescent lamp corridor lighting to the coexistence of high-tech lighting means such as incandescent lamps, neon lights, floodlights, reflective signs, internal light boxes and lasers, optical fibers and light-emitting diodes. In the way of lighting, it has been linear (contour), surface (billboard), body shape (outer building outline), mass (surface + inner through), and dynamic and static combination, primary and secondary (building subject and The combination of environmental factors) develops into a comprehensive use of various means.

The implementation of urban night lighting has the following functions: reshaping the image of the urban environment and strengthening the city landscape. The implementation of the city night lighting can increase the sense of honor and pride of the citizens, and is also regarded as a symbol of urban prosperity and progress.

The nightscape lighting that guarantees good personal and traffic safety can not only show the style and characteristics of the city, but also improve the security situation of the city. For example, plaza and road lighting meet the basic requirements of ensuring safe and smooth traffic such as reliable identification and visual effects, and help prevent crime.

The image consciousness of the government, the public welfare behavior and the commercial behavior of the business owners are intertwined, which promotes the diversification of lighting.

Different lighting standards, light colors, square lights and street lamps, installation width, spacing and lighting, Bucheng Town Construction 2003/4 with the same style, as well as the landmark lighting of key buildings, is conducive to clarifying the city square and road structure and Urban pattern.

Mistakes in the process of lighting are not systematic, lack of overall sense. Most cities have no unified planning for night lighting, and the effects of individual lighting are not good. The competition in commercial image even leads to the brightness comparison and color of landscape lighting. occur. Urban lighting systems do not have the overall structure of point, line and surface.

The landscape lighting of different objects does not have outstanding personality. The design is simple. The urban lighting system includes different objects such as roads, buildings, squares, greenery, water bodies, etc. The lighting effects and landscape images also have their own characteristics. They are organically combined and can Form a rhythmic, sequenced urban night landscape. The current lighting effect does not reflect the multiplicity and complexity of the landscape. Simplified lighting creates quality problems with outstanding landscapes, especially for architectural landscapes with more aesthetic values, regardless of their image and cultural characteristics, simply using floodlighting and using a lot of color, or adding huge The commercial lighting sign destroys the original cultural and artistic aesthetic value of the building. For the building, such lighting is superficial.

Light pollution and glare are serious. At present, astronomical observations caused by light pollution have become a more prominent problem. Improper lighting settings also interfere with passing vehicles and pedestrians, affecting residents' rest.

Light pollution generally refers to sky light, fugitive light, and light invading. Sky light refers to the part of the light that is emitted into the sky by the illuminator. It comes from two aspects: one is that the spotlight or the street lamp illuminates the object while the part of the light illuminates the sky; the second is the part of the illuminated part. Reflected light, such as large areas of the road surface. The escaping light refers to the light emitted from the luminaire, which is not directed at or swept by the illuminated object. This useless light illuminates the surrounding objects, reducing the efficiency of floodlighting. Different lighting designs of the same object have a large difference in the amount of light escaping, which is related to the beam angle, beam shape, luminaire arrangement and aiming point position of the selected luminaire.

Infringement of light refers to the harassment of people's lives, work or rest without the light shining on the subject, such as the glare that strikes the eyes of the driver and the pedestrian, affecting their ability to work and move; the light that hits the window of the house affects the residents. rest.

Poor maintenance of lighting facilities, from the current situation of the formation of night scenes, lack of maintenance and management after lighting. In addition to the quality problems of some products, equipment and construction, the lamps are damaged, the words and patterns are incomplete, and the scenes are bright and dark. Because they are not maintained in time, the night scenes are greatly blurred. These phenomena are not uncommon and should be given a certain amount of attention.

In urban night lighting, the use of floodlights accounts for a large proportion. Due to the limitations of design and site conditions, a large amount of light energy is scattered into the sky, inside the building (through the glass curtain wall) and on the road, which causes the lighting efficiency to drop. It also brings glare, visual interference and light pollution. At the same time, some low-quality products and lamps are under-maintained, and the light source is over-life, which also increases energy consumption.

Relevant measures and suggestions are planned from the whole, and the lighting structure is established. It is clear that the planning and design of lighting projects in key cities should be based on the urban visual image framework of the urban environment and the artificial development of the urban pattern, reflecting and highlighting this pattern. Not all buildings in the city should be brightened.

Suitable for key lighting: (1) commercial and cultural buildings, which are the most frequent places for people flow at night, and can best reflect the economic, cultural, historical and cultural characteristics of a city; (2) administrative financial buildings, such buildings often represent The highest level of architectural and spatial image of a city; (3) iconic buildings, the landmarks provide visual focus, help to establish a sense of urban orientation and a unique network of urban landscapes; (4) important historic buildings and protected buildings, This type of architecture reflects the historical and cultural heritage of the city.

Developing uniform standards and specifications for lighting In terms of urban planning management, the overall structure of controllable lighting consists of: (1) building lighting; (2) square lighting; (3) road and bridge lighting; (4) Green landscape lighting; (5) water body lighting; (6) outdoor advertising and sign lighting.

The basic condition of lighting is to ensure the level of illumination required for various urban functions and activities to meet the requirements of clear vision. The illumination level and brightness distribution of a building are related to various factors such as ambient brightness, background brightness, building surface material, and cleanliness. At present, the illumination and brightness of the lighting design are not standardized, and can only refer to the corresponding technical documents of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), and the adaptability and security are poor. Therefore, we should strengthen the comprehensive research on the characteristics of night lighting in China, especially the research that is compatible with the optimization of landscape and optimization environment. Combine with China's national conditions, and refer to CIE to formulate our own standards as soon as possible.

The night landscape is inseparable from light and needs to be represented by reasonable illumination. However, the light factor is only one of the characteristics of the landscape space, and in terms of the characteristics of light, it contains both aesthetics and technology. The coordination and cooperation between the quality of the urban night space environment and planning designers and electrical engineers is inseparable. The planner puts appropriate requirements on the lighting based on various factors of the city, and the electrical engineer makes corresponding cooperation. The two are closely combined to achieve better results.

Emphasis on energy conservation and sustainable development Saving energy, protecting the environment and improving lighting quality are the main trends in implementing green lighting projects in countries around the world. At present, the international community believes that when considering and formulating energy conservation policies, regulations and measures, the principle is to save lighting power consumption as much as possible while ensuring sufficient quantity and quality of lighting. Lighting energy conservation mainly refers to the purpose of benefiting by adopting energy-saving and high-efficiency lighting products, improving quality and optimizing lighting design. The energy-saving principles proposed by the International Commission on Illumination are: (1) determining the level of illumination according to the needs of visual work; (2) designing energy-saving lighting to obtain the required illumination; and (3) using high-efficiency light sources on the basis of color rendering; 4) use high-efficiency luminaires that do not produce glare; (5) use high-reflection materials for indoor surfaces; (6) combine lighting and air-conditioning systems; (7) set smart devices that turn off lights when not needed; (8) The combination of artificial lighting that does not produce glare and difference with natural lighting; (9) Regularly clean lighting fixtures and interior surfaces, and establish a system for changing lights and maintenance.

Conclusion With the progress of urban construction in various parts of China, the level of urban planning and design has been continuously improved, and the project management mechanism has been increasingly improved. On entering the new century, lighting will enter the environmental period, more emphasis on environmental effects, and create a comfortable and beautiful human landscape, which will undoubtedly lead people to examine and evaluate the urban nightscape design from a more gradual level. Therefore, we should pay attention to urban lighting from research, planning, management, maintenance and other aspects to create a comfortable, beautiful and ecological living environment for people.

Editor: Xiao Jiye

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